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Technical Papers

Overload Protection - (80,446 bytes)  
Every component making up an electrical installation is designed for use at a particular rated current. When it is used within these limits it will have a specific service life expectancy, which is the length of time for which the insulation will remain operationally safe.
EL 305 Single Phase Application - (78,781 bytes)  
There is a requirement to use an EL305 earth leakage relay in a single phase application. The question asked is, can the EL305 be used in a single phase application and if so how do you connect it.
EC 100 series kWh Application Note - (88,569 bytes)  
EC 100 series kWh consumption when using external CT’s.
CBI Electronic Time Switch - (73,568 bytes)  
Easy-to-use programming leaflets
SPDs Installed into TN-C-S Systems - (435,121 bytes)  
According to the South African code of practice for the wiring of premises, SANS 10142-1:2003 (edition 1.1 as amended in 2003) for TN-C-S earthing systems, a Surge Protective Device (SPD) should also be fitted between Neutral and Earth only if a certain distance is exceeded, as explained below
Loss of Neutral in Low Voltage Distribution Systems - (107,161 bytes)  
The consequence of a lost neutral conductor will vary, depending mainly on the load balance conditions in a three phase system, but also on the type of earthing system used and the position of the break in the neutral relative to the load.
Electrical Shock and Fire Hazard Protection - Conquering the limitations - (30,708 bytes)  
The 1957 South African developments in sensitive earth leakage protection signalled a quantum leap in the science and application of devices specifically intended to improve the usability of electrical power, by dramatically reducing electrical shock and fire hazards resulting from imperfect or dama
Effect of Multiple Neutral Earthing Systems on Consumers' installations - (385,852 bytes)  
An historical examination into electrical faults has revealed that the major causes of earth leakage trip-outs are faults in electrical appliances and flexible cords. The second most prevalent fault has been found to be inadvertent connections between the consumer’s neutral conductor and earth.
Electrical Shock Hazard Protection - (675,201 bytes)  
The science of sensitive earth leakage protection was developed in South Africa, with the first commercial installation on a large scale taking place in 1957. A recent nationwide survey, however, revealed that approximately 5 % of installed earth leakage circuit breakers could be inoperative due to
South Africa – A pathfinder in earth - (151,104 bytes)  
In this article, the historical development of Earth Leakage Protection is traced. Special attention is given to the South African contribution
The inequality of Circuit Breaker Standards - (190,643 bytes)  
The proliferation of National and International product specifications that cover low voltage circuit breakers has led to confusion regarding the intended application of these protection devices.
Critical currents in Circuit Breakers - (65,022 bytes)  
The question of overcurrents in low voltage circuit breakers is examined in detail with the test requirements of product standards being studied for applicability in relation to practical applications.
Why Electronic and not Electromechanical ELCBs ? - (65,305 bytes)  
South Africa’s 40 years of experience in the manufacture and application of sensitive earth leakage protection devices, together with the more recent global experiences covering millions of installed units over several decades
EMC - Beyond 1996 - (84,866 bytes)  
This paper introduces and defines the concepts of Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), together with their relationship to Quality of Supply (QOS).
Overcurrent Protection in Long Lines - (73,552 bytes)  
In recent years, the financial and economic crises in South East Asia and Brazil have left their unfortunate mark on most developing countries as well as in many developed countries across the globe.
Induction Motors - Protection and Starting - (59,971 bytes)  
It is well understood that induction motors draw higher currents during their starting operations than is the case under full load running conditions.
Overcurrent protection in Low Voltage Electrical Circuits - (44,293 bytes)
Utility generated and distributed electricity is one of the cheapest, cleanest, most convenient and safest forms of energy.